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Tag Archive: close loop

Semi-closed hydraulic circuits

Have you ever heard about the semi-closed hydraulic circuit?

The idea is to use open loop pumps in closed loop circuit. In the latest eighties, Mannesmann Rexroth (yes, that time Mannesmann yet!) even offered pumps A4VSH, especially designed for semi-closed circuits.

Bosch Rexroth A4VSH pump

Bosch Rexroth A4VSH pump, from catalog RE92110/01.89

The main difference between closed loop pumps and semi-closed loop pumps was in addition block mounted to the ports A and B with check valves which let to supply suction flow from the tank, while mainstream comes from the motor to pump’s suction port:

Since that time Rexroth still builds A4VSH, but there are a limited number of sizes and options available and its no longer a mainstream published option.

But to make a semi-closed loop you do not need some special pump, it’s really easy to turn most standard open loop pump into a semi-closed loop circuit. Of course, you have to have some knowledge about the application and actuators before trying to apply it. If the pump does not have an integrated boost pump and check valves these are commonly added via an external gear pump and external check valves.

Here is the simplest example of the semi-closed circuit schematic where a regular open loop pump with LS control is involved to run two motors with independent proportional control of their speeds:

Parker Gold Cap pumps Interactive Tool

Parker Gold Cap pumps interactive tool

Parker Gold Cap Pumps Interactive Tool

Just have been gotten an interesting link from Parker distributor for their Gold Cap Pumps interactive online software:
https://divapps.parker.com/divapps/hpps/gold-cup-pump/

Here you can:

  • take a look at how different valves work internally in the pump;
  • check schematic for each pump’s option and size;
  • learn the terminology of pump internal components;
  • watch the video and download PowerPoint presentation about these pumps;
  • at the bottom of this software, you can find a link to the eConfigurator.

My notes:

  • Gold Cap pumps are pretty complicated, so any additional info like this is always helpful.
  • It will be awesome if the pumps schematics can be downloaded in DXF format to integrate into my projects.

Charge pump displacement

Close loop circuit

There is a generic rule for close loop systems, to select the charge pump size: pump displacement should be at least 10% of the combined displacement of the pump and motor. To understand where this value comes from let’s figure-out all factors in the system what influence on a charge flow:

1. The charge pump has to supply enough flow to compensate for leaks due to the volumetric efficiency of the pump and motor. This is why sometimes the charge pump called a “replenishing pump”.

In general, volumetric efficiency of pump and motor in the hydrostatic transmission is around 96..97%, so system overall volumetric efficiency is around 93%. It means 7% of the theoretical pump flow is the leaks which need to be somehow compensated.

2. Addition flow needs for flushing of both main pump case and motor case to remove the hottest oil from the system.

Adding a hot oil shuttle valve at the motor removes the hottest oil in the loop through the motor case drain. Normal practice is to run the motor case back to the bottom drain port of the main pump then from the top pump’s drain port to the cooler (see the picture above).

There no ways to calculate exactly the required flushing flow through the motor. You need some experience with different applications and motor sizes, you have to do tests and check recommendations from the motor manufacturer. The generic rule to find the best flushing flow rate: motor should not be overheated in the worst-case mode.

3. Charge pump itself has huge internal leaks.

Mostly charge pump is a vane or gear type, and the volumetric efficiency of these type of pumps is very low, around 80%.

4. A small qty of flow is required to power the pump’s control system.

This qty of flow is pretty small.

Of course, different systems require different approaches to the calculation of charge pump displacement. And sometimes we have to make some compromises. If you have doubts – just ask a question!

Manifold for motors in close loop.

Just a note about one direction motors (not reverse!) in close loop applications.

There are a lot of different ways how to proceed with a hyd. motor in close loop applications to make motor work safe and reliable. From my experience, almost each one direction motor application is required to have the next items:

  1. Anti-cavitation check valve
  2. Pressure relief valve
  3. Case flushing valve
  4. Test ports

Each motor manufacturer has own solutions for their motors, but here are problems you can meet:

  1. OEM solution usually is not flexible: you can use only what they have. If you need for example flushing of the motor case – you have to design something external anyways.
  2. Price for these options is unreasonably high;
  3. Delivery time increased on 2..6 weeks;

Here is how I like to proceed for one direction motors – with an external manifold, mounted by hoses flange botls directly to both motor ports:

Motor Flushing

  1. The manifold is designed with through “A” and “B” SAE Code 62 ports with grooves for O-Rings from both sides. Using gender changer plates (for example, solution from Inserta) the manifold can be mounted in any direction/position and ports can be easy swapped if it required.
  2. Anti-cavitation valve is integrated to pressure relief valve is a very compact cartridge, which saves space in the manifold. Like an example, here are solutions from Hydac (DBRV16P) and Rexroth (MHDBN).
  3. Flushing flow control valves examples: HYDAC (SR06-01 or SR08-01) or SUN Hydraulics FDCB-LAN. The benefit of Hydac SR valves is SAE ORB cavity: if you do not need flushing valve you can still use this universal manifold but jut plug cavity with the regular ORB port plug.
  4. And of course test ports. I like to involve as many test ports as it is possible to make easy maintenance.

The benefit of using flushing flow control valve (vs fixed orifice) is you can adjust required flow for any motor size specificly for application conditions, you do not need to pick the size and replace the orifice with each new motor.

The only thing you have to be careful about is a motor case drain pressure. Therefore, before adjusting a flow put a pressure gauge between the manifold and port “D1” and increase flow slowly to reach the required flow rate but not exceed max case pressure.

Flushing line from the manifold needs to be connected to the bottom case drain port of motor. From the top case drain port, the line needs to be plumbed directly to a tank.